How Circuits Work

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Grace has been working on writing short, factual reports for the past few weeks.  Here is her final draft of her short report on circuits. 🙂

How Circuits Work

Circuits are used almost everywhere.  They’re in lights, computers, and even radios.  If you’re reading this, you probably want to learn about circuits and how they work.  Let’s start by talking about insulators and conductors.

An insulator is a material that does not have a strong electrical current and will not allow electricity to flow through it easily.  A conductor is a material that does have a strong current and allows electricity to easily flow.  They are both very important parts of any circuit.  Conductors are used as wires and insulators as wire covers.

Wires are made of thin strings of metals such as copper, which is a good conductor.  They lead the current through the circuit.  Wires are often covered in thick layers of rubber, a good insulator. This is so the fast current doesn’t shock you if you touch the wire.  The covered wire is connected to a power source, or a battery.  The power from the battery to flow through the wire until it hits a switch or a resistor.

A switch is a gap in the circuit that can be opened or closed to control the flow of electricity.  A closed switch allows the current to continue to flow, but an open switch cuts off the current.  This current flows until it reaches a resistor.  Resistors are materials that have no current and transform electricity into thermal energy, light energy, and more.

To summarize, a circuit starts with a battery which is attached to a wire.  This wire runs until it hits a switch.  If the switch is closed, the current can flow on.  It flows to a resistor which turns the electricity into energy we can use.

-Grace<3

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